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Hydrogen fuel cells: Is the future closer than we think?

September 20th, 2021
Chemicals

Hydrogen fuel cells: Is the future closer than we think?

September 20th, 2021
Chemicals

A team of engineers and chemists led by AUCLA have taken a major step toward developing microbial cells – a technology that uses natural bacteria to create electrical currents from organic matter to electrical water. A recent study on its success has been described.

By 2050, the rapid adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and the rapid production of renewable energy will lead to 99 less fossil fuel consumption and 93 less CO2 emissions than passenger and freight vehicles in Oahu. Katherine McKenzie, a faculty member at the University of Hawaii School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOST), is eager in an article published in the World Electric Vehicle Journal.

“Organisms that use bacteria in sewage are making sustainable environmental efforts,” said Yu Huang, professor and head of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at UCLA School of Engineering. “Natural bacterial populations can help decompose groundwater by breaking down harmful chemical compounds. At present, our research also shows a practical way to use the renewable energy from this process.”

The team focuses on the bacterium Chevenella, which has been extensively studied for its energy-producing capabilities. They can grow and thrive in all environments – including soil, sewage, and seawater, regardless of oxygen level.

McKenzie, based at SOEST’s Hawaii Natural Energy Reza, has developed four-index mathematical models based on estimates of electric switches and trucking vehicles and estimates of renewable energy production. He calculated the effects of fossil fuels and CO2 emissions in Oahu and found that the quiet outlook for Evis consumes billions of gallons of gasoline and millions of tons of CO2 emissions.

Because many remote communities still rely on oil for transportation and electricity, there are no benefits to determining the benefits of using electric vehicles (EVs) for internal combustion engines. In 2020, it was found that passenger satires consumed 66 gallons of gasoline, seven times fewer fossil fuels than their 455-gallon gasoline equipment. EV Sat EV also reduces greenhouse gas emissions by half, two tonnes of CO2 versus four tonnes of CO2.

Is Hydrogen Production effiecient enough?

“Hydrogen hydrogen is difficult to deplete,” the researchers wrote. Hydrogen only acts as a strategy to the extent that it is possible to store carbon dioxide indefinitely without leakage into the atmosphere. “

On August 10, the US Senate passed a $ 1 trillion investment and employment investment bill that includes billions of dollars to develop, subsidize and strengthen hydrogen technology and its industry.

“Perhaps political forces have nothing to do with science yet,” says Howart. “Even progressive politicians do not know who to vote for. Hydrogen looks good, it looks modern, and our energy looks like the way of the future. It does not.”

There is eco-friendly “green” hydrogen, but this area is small and not commercially available. Green hydrogen is obtained when water is electrolyzed (by electricity supplied by solar, wind, or hydropower) and the water is separated into hydrogen and oxygen.

“The best hydrogen, the green hydrogen from electrolysis – if used wisely and efficiently – could be the path to a sustainable future,” says Howart. “Hydrogen is very different from hydrogen.”

This research was supported with funding from the Park Foundation. Howart is a member of the Cornell Atkinson Sustainability Center.

Chevenella naturally breaks down organic waste into smaller molecules, with electrons as by-products of the metabolic process. When bacteria grow as a film on electrodes, some electrons can be captured and form a microbial filling cell that produces electricity.

However, the microbial filling cells administered by Chevenella vanidensis have not yet received sufficient flow of bacteria to make the technology suitable for industrial use. Some electrons can move rapidly to enter the electrodes to block bacterial membranes, provide electrical current, and provide satisfaction.

“In the coming years, continue to buy anything that uses oil locks, in terms of drainage insecurity and energy permits, when decarbonization is a must,” says McKenzie. “There is a need to change the energy-intensive aspects of travel, such as cycling, walking, and transportation, as well as reducing vehicle mileage (for example, through ‘smart’ urban planning and teleworking).”

To solve this problem, nanoparticles have been added to silver electrodes made from a type of graphene oxide. Nanoparticles emit silver ions, which bacteria reduce silver nanoparticles to produce electrons from their metabolic process and then enter their cells. Once inside the bacteria, the silver particles act as asymoscopic transmission wires, capturing most of the electrons produced by the bacteria.

Bacteria willing to produce hydrogen are not evironmentally hazardeous.

“Adding silver nanoparticles to bacteria is like making proprietary lympholectrons that allow us to work faster and faster,” said Xiang Fengduan, another study author and professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UCLA.

According to new research published in Energy Science and Engineering, the carbon footprint for hydrogen production is 20 percent greater than the direct use of natural gas or coal, or 60 percent greater than the use of diesel oil for heating.

This report was by Robert Howart, Professor of Environment and Environmental Biology at Cornell, and Mark Zee. Jacobson is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford.

“In the coming years, continue to buy anything that uses oil locks, in terms of drainage insecurity and energy permits, when decarbonization is a must,” says McKenzie. “There is a need to change the energy-intensive aspects of travel, such as cycling, walking, and transportation, as well as reducing vehicle mileage (for example, through ‘smart’ urban planning and teleworking).”

To solve this problem, nanoparticles have been added to silver electrodes made from a type of graphene oxide. Nanoparticles emit silver ions, which bacteria reduce silver nanoparticles to produce electrons from their metabolic process and then enter their cells. Once inside the bacteria, the silver particles act as asymoscopic transmission wires, capturing most of the electrons produced by the bacteria.

“Adding silver nanoparticles to bacteria is like making proprietary lympholectrons that allow us to work faster and faster,” said Xiang Fengduan, another study author and professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UCLA.

According to new research published in Energy Science and Engineering, the carbon footprint for hydrogen production is 20 percent greater than the direct use of natural gas or coal, or 60 percent greater than the use of diesel oil for heating.

This report was by Robert Howart, Professor of Environmental and Environmental Biology at Cornell, and Mark Zee. Jacobson is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford.

Hydrogen uses heat, steam, and pressure, or gray hydrogen, to inject methane into hydrogen and carbon dioxide but goes beyond it to achieve some carbon dioxide. According to the US Department of Defense, hydrogen turns blue when side carbon dioxide and other impurities are released.

With significant improvements in electron transfer efficiency, the silver-impregnated Chevenella film produces more than 80 of the enzymatic electrons in the external circuit and produces a power of 0.66 mW / cm2 – for microbial fuel cells. More than double.

As flow increases and efficiency improves, this study, supported by the Naval Research Bureau, showed that fuel cells equipped with silver-chuanella hybrid bacteria could pave the way for the generation of power in operational environments.

According to researchers, the process of making hydrogen consumes a lot of energy, which is usually provided by burning more natural gas.

“In the past, no attempt has been made to extract carbon dioxide from the gray hydrogen product, and emissions have been very high,” says Howart. “The industry is currently promoting hydrogen as a solution, a method that still uses methane from natural gas, while the by-product is looking to extract carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, emissions are still high. “

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, Hawart said. When released, it is 100 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a heating agent. He said a report released by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change showed that in the last century, methane had contributed up to two-thirds of global warming to carbon dioxide.

The release of hydrogen is lower than that of gray hydrogen, but only 9 to 12 percent.

Buchengkao, a UCLA doctoral student recommended by Huang and Deuan, is the first author of the paper. Other senior UCLA authors include Gerard Wang, Professor of Bioengineering. Paul Weiss, President of UC University and Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering; And Chong Liu, Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Kenneth Nielsen, a retired professor of earth science at USC, is also a senior author.

Article by:

Armin Vali

Adapted from: Science daily. 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/09/210916142846.htm

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/08/210812161902.htm

 

 

 

 

 

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